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©fftct&I handbook 
of 

©he Manama ©anal 

SECOND EDITION— REVISED AND ENLARGED. 




Gift of the Panama Canal Museum 



COMPILED BY 

THE SECRETARY OF THE ISTHMIAN CANAL 
COMMISSION 



1011 






Manama ©anal 



©fftcutt ^n&hooVi 



1911 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support frojtn LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/panamacanalofficOOisth 



Contents. 

Page. 

Canal Appropriations and Expenditures.... 27 

Canal, Breakwaters 22 

Canal, Dimensions 5-0 

Canal Force, Quarters etc 24 

Canal, Profile 3 

Canal, Relief Map 2 

Canal Statistics 4 

Canal Zone 26 

Culebra Cut, Cross Sections 17-19-21-23 

Dam, Gatun 6 

Dam, Gatun, Cross Section 9 

Dam, Gatun, Spillway and Locks 7 

Dams, on Pacific Side 10 

Equipment _ 29-30 

Excavation __ 16-18 

Food, Clothing etc.. 25 

French Equipment etc., value of.. 26 

Lake, Gatun, Water Supply... „ 8 

Lake, Miraflores 10 

Locks 10-12-14 

Locks, Cross Section _ 1 1 

Locks, Model of „ 13 

Locks, wall comparison 15 

Relocated Panama Railroad 28 

Slides 16 

Steam Shovel and Train Capacity 20 



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Canal Statistics. 

Length from deep water to deep water (miles) 50 

Length from shore-line to shore-line (miles) -10 

Bottom width of channel, maximum (feet) 1000 

Bottom width of channel, minimum, 9 miles, Cule- 

bra Cut (feet) 300 

Locks, in pairs 12 

Locks, usable length (feet) 1000 

Locks, usable width (feet) 110 

Gatun Lake, area (square miles) 164 

Gatun Lake, channel depth (feet) 85 to 45 

Culebra Cut, channel depth (feet)._ 45 

Excavation, estimated total (cubic yards) 182,537,766 

Excavation, amount accomplished May 1, 1911 

(cubic yards) 137,750,520 

Excavation by the French (cubic yards) 78,146,960 

Excavation by French, useful to present Canal, 

(cubic yards) 29,908,000 

Excavation by French, estimated value to Canal,.. $25,389,240 

Value of all French property §42,799,826 

Concrete, total estimated for Canal (cubic yards).. 5,000,000 

Time of transit through completed Canal (hours).. 10 to 12 

Time of passage through locks (hours) 3 

Relocated Panama Railroad, estimated cost $9,000,000 

Relocated Panama Railroad, length (miles) 47.1 

Canal Zone, area (square miles) 448 

Canal and Panama Railroad force actually at work 

(about) 35,000 

Canal and Panama Railroad force, Americans 

(about) 5000 

Cost of Canal, estimated total $375,000,000 

Work begun by Americans May 4, 1904 

Date of completion Jan. 1, 1915 



The Panama CanaL 



The entire length of the Canal from deep water 
in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific is about 
50 miles. Its length from shore-line to shore-line is 
about 40 miles. In passing through it from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, a vessel will enter the approach 
channel in Limon Bay, which will have a bottom 
width of 500 feet and extend to Gatun, a distance of 
about seven miles. At Gatun, it will enter a series 
of three locks in flight and be lifted 85 feet to the level 
of Gatun Lake. It may steam at full speed through 
this lake, in a channel varying from 1,000 to 500 feet in 
width, for a distance of about 24 miles, to Bas Obispo, 
where it will enter the Culebra Cut. It. will pass 
through the Cut, a distance of about nine miles, in a 
channel with a bottom width of 300 feet, to Pedro 
Miguel. There it will enter a lock and be lowered 30| 
feet to a small lake, at an elevation of 54f feet above 
sea level, and will pass through this for about 1| miles 
to Miraflores. There it will enter two locks in series 
and be lowered to sea level, passing out into the Pa- 
cific through a channel about 8| miles in length, with 
a bottom width of 500 feet. The depth of the ap- 
proach channel on the Atlantic side, where the maxi- 
mum tidal oscillation is 2\ feet, will be 41 feet at mean 
tide, and on the Pacific side, where the maximum 
oscillation is 21 feet, the depth will be 45 feet at mean 
tide. 

Throughout the first 16 miles from Gatun, the width 
of the Lake channel will be 1,000 feet; then for 4 miles 
it will be 800 feet, and for 4 miles more, to the northern 
entrance of Culebra Cut at Bas Obispo, it will be 500 
feet. The depth will vary from 85 to 45 feet. The 
water level in the Cut will be that of the Lake, the 
depth 45 feet, and the bottom width of the channel 
300 feet. 

Three hundred feet is the minimum bottom width 
of the Canal. This width begins about half a mile 



The Panama Canal {Continued.) 

above Pedro Miguel locks and extends about 8 miles 
through Culebra Cut. with the exception that at all 
angles the channel is widened sufficiently to allow a 
thousand-foot vessel to make the turn. The Cut has 
eight angles, or about one to every mile. The 300- 
foot widths are only on tangents between the turning 
basins at the angles. The smallest of these angles is 
7° 36', and the largest 30°. 

In the whole Canal there are 22 angles, the total 
curvature being 600° 51'. Of this curvature, 281° 10' 
are measured to the right, going south, and 319° 41' to 
the left. The sharpest curve occurs at Tabernilla, and 
is 67° 10'. 

Gatun Dam. 

The Gatun Dam. which will form Gatun Lake by 
impounding the waters of the Chagres and its tribu- 
taries, will be nearly H miles long, measured on its 
crest, nearly \ mile wide at its base, about 400 feet 
wide at the water surface, about 100 feet wide at the 
top, and its crest, as planned, will be at an elevation of 
115 feet above mean sea level, or 30 feet above the nor- 
mal level of the Lake. Of the total length of the Dam 
only 500 feet, or ^5, will be exposed to the maximum 
water head of 85 feet. The interior of the Dam will 
be formed of a natural mixture of sand and clay, 
dredged by hydraulic process from pits above and 
below the Dam, and placed between two large masses 
of rock and miscellaneous material obtained from 
steam shovel excavation at various points along the 
Canal. The top and upstream slope will be thor- 
oughly riprapped. The entire Dam will contain 
about 21,000,000 cubic yards of material. 

The Spillway is a concrete lined opening, 1,200 
feet long and 300 feet wide, cut through a hill of 
rock nearly in the center of the Dam. the bottom of 
the opening being 10 feet above sea level. It will 
contain about 225,000 cubic yards of concrete. 
During the construction of the Dam, all the water 
discharged from the Chagres and its tributaries will 
flow through this opening. When construction 
has advanced sufficiently to permit the Lake to be 
formed, the Spillway will be closed with a concrete 
dam, fitted with gates and machinery for regulating 
the water level of the Lake. 



Water Supply of Gatun Lake. 

Gatun Lake will impound the waters of a basin com- 
prising 1,320 square miles. When the surface of the 
water is at 85 feet above sea level, the Lake will have 
an area of about 164 square miles, and will contain 
about 206 billion cubic feet of water. During eight 
or nine months of the year, the lake will be kept con- 
stantly full by the prevailing rains, and consequently 
a surplus will need to be stored for only three or four 
months of the dry season. The smallest run-off of 
water in the basin, during the past 21 years, as meas- 
ured at Gatun, was about 146 billion cubic feet. In 
1910 the run-off was 360 billion cubic feet, or a suf- 
ficient quantity to fill the lake one and- a half times. 
The water surface of the Lake will be maintained dur- 
ing the rainy season at 87 feet above sea level, making 
the minimum channel depth in the Canal 47 feet. As 
navigation can be carried on with about 41 feet of 
water, there will be stored for dry season surplus over 
five feet of water. Makingdue allowance for evapora- 
tion, seepage, leakage at the gates, and power con- 
sumption, this would be ample for 41 passages daily 
through the locks, using them at full length, or about 
58 lockages a day when partial length is used, as would 
be usually the case, and when cross filling from one 
lock to the other through the central wall is employed. 
This would be a larger number of lockages than would 
be possible in a single day. The average number of 
lockages through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal on the 
American side was 37 per day in the season of navi- 
gation of 1909, which' was about eight months long. 
The average number of ships passed was about 1| per 
lockage. The freight carried was more than 30,000,000 
tons. The Suez Canal passed about 12 vessels per 
day, with a total tonnage for the year of 15,500,000. 



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Dams on Pacific Side. 

The water level of Gatun Lake, extending through 
the Culebra Cut, will be maintained at the south end 
by an earth dam connecting the locks at Pedro Miguel 
with the high ground to the westward, about 1,400 
feet long, with its crest at an elevation of 105 feet above 
mean tide. A concrete core wall, containing about 
700 cubic yards, will connect the locks with the hills 
to the eastward ; this core wall will rest directly on 
the rock surface and is designed to prevent perco- 
lation through the earth, the surface of which is above 
the Lake level. 

A small lake between the locks at Pedro Miguel and 
Miraflores will be formed by dams connecting the walls 
of Miraflores locks with the high ground on either side. 
The dam to the westward will be of earth, about 2,700 
feet long, having its crest about 15 feet above the water 
in Miraflores Lake. The east dam will be of concrete, 
containing about 75,000 cubic yards; will be about 500 
feet long, and will form a spillway for Miraflores Lake, 
with crest gates similar to those at the Spillway of the 
Gatun Dam. 

The Locks. 

There will be 6 double locks in the Canal; three 
pairs in flight at Gatun, with a combined lift of 85 feet; 
one pair at Pedro Miguel, with a lift of 30| feet, and 
two pairs at Miraflores, with a combined lift of 54| 
feet at mean tide. The usable dimensions of all are 
the same — a length of 1,000 feet, and width of 110 feet. 
Each lock will be a chamber, with walls and floor of 
concrete, and mitering gates at each end. 

The side walls will be 45 to 50 feet wide at the sur- 
face of the floor; will be perpendicular on the face, and 
will narrow from a point 24| feet above the floor until 
they are 8 feet wide at the top. The middle wall will 
be 60 feet wide, approximately 81 feet high, and each 
face will be vertical. At a point 42| feet above the 
surface of the floor, and 15 feet above the top of the 
middle culvert, this wall will divide into two parts, 
leaving a space down the center much like the letter 
"U," which will be 19 feet wide at the bottom and 
44 feet wide at the top. In this center space will be 
a tunnel divided into three stories, or galleries. The 



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The Locks (Continued.)^ 

lowest gallery will be for drainage; the middle, for the 
wires that will carry the electric current to operate the 
gate and valve machinery installed in the center wall, 
and the upper will be a passageway for the operators. 

The lock gates will be steel structures 7 feet thick, 
65 feet long, and from 47 to 82 feet high. They will 
weigh from 300 to 600 tons each. Ninety-two leaves 
will be required for the entire Canal, the total weighing 
57,000 tons. Intermediate gates will be used in the 
locks, in order to save water and time, if desired, in 
locking small vessels through, the gates being so placed 
as to divide the locks into chambers 600 and 400 feet 
long, respectively. Ninety-five per cent of the vessels 
navigating the high seas are less than 600 feet long. 
In the construction of the locks, it is estimated that 
there will be used approximately 4,200,000 cubic yards 
of concrete, requiring about the same number of bar- 
rels of cement. 

Electricity will be used to tow all vessels into and 
through the locks, and to operate all gates and valves, 
power being generated by water turbines from the 
head created by Gatun Lake. Vessels will not be per- 
mitted to enter or pass through the locks under their 
own power, but will be towed through by electric loco- 
motives running on cog-rails laid on the tops of the 
lock walls. There will be two towing tracks for each 
flight of locks, one on the side and one on the middle 
wall. On each side wall there will be one return 
track and on the middle wall a third common to both 
of the twin locks. All tracks will run continuously 
the entire length of the respective flights and will ex- 
tend some distance on the guide approach walls at each 
end. The number of locomotives used will vary with 
the size of the vessel. The usual number required will 
be four; two ahead, one on each wall, imparting motion 
to the vessel, and two astern, one on each wall, to aid 
in keeping the vessel in a central position and to bring 
it to rest when entirely within the lock chamber. They 
will be equipped with a slip drum, towing windlass 
and hawser which will permit the towing line to be 



13 




Model of Pedro Miguel Locks. 

The lock on the right is nearly filled for an up- 
ward lockage. Four electric locomotives are shown 
securely holding a 10,000-ton ship, and ready to tow 
it out of the lock, so soon as the upper gates are 
opened. In the foreground is shown a protective 
chain; at the entrance to the lock on the left is 
shown a caisson in position and acting as a barrier 
between the high level above and the low level 
below the lock. 

On the right is shown an emergency dam in its 
normal position when not in use and on the left the 
other dam is shown swung in position across the 
lock with the wicket girder down in readiness to 
support the wickets or gates which complete the 
barrier. 



14 

The Locks (Continued.) 

taken in or paid out without actual motion of the loco- 
motive on the track. 

The locks will be filled and emptied through a sys- 
tem of culverts. One culvert 254 sq. ft. in area of cross 
section, about the area of the Hudson River tunnels 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, extends the entire length 
of each of the middle and side walls and from each of 
these large culverts there are several smaller culverts, 
33 to 44 sq. ft. in area, which extend under the floor 
of the lock and communicate with the lock chamber 
through holes in the floor. The large culverts are con- 
trolled at points near the miter gates by large valves 
and each of the small culverts extending from the mid- 
dle wall culvert into the twin chambers is controlled 
by a cylindrical valve. The large culvert in the mid- 
dle wall feeds in both directions through laterals, 
thus permitting the passage of water from one twin 
lock to another, effecting a saving of water. (See cuts. ) 

To fill a lock the valves at the upper end are opened 
and the lower valves closed. The water flows from the 
upper pool through the large culverts into the small 
lateral culverts and thence through the holes in the 
floor into the lock chamber. To empty a lock the 
valves at the upper end are closed and those at the 
lower end are opened and the water flows into the 
lower lock or pool in a similar manner. This system 
distributes the water as evenly as possible over the en- 
tire horizontal area of the lock and reduces the disturb- 
ance in the chamber when it is being filled or emptied. 

The depth of water over the miter sills of the locks 
will be 40 feet in salt water and 41-j feet in fresh water. 

The average time of filling and emptying a lock will 
be about fifteen minutes, without opening the valves 
so suddenly as to create disturbing currents in the 
locks or approaches. The time required to pass a 
vessel through all the locks is estimated at 3 hours; one 
hour and a half in the three locks at Gatun, and about 
the same time in the three locks on the Pacific side. 
The time of passage of a vessel through the entire 
Canal is estimated as ranging from 10 to 12 hours, 
according to the size of the ship, and the rate of speed 
at which it can travel. 



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Side Wall of Locks Compared with Six-story 
Building. 



16 



Slides. 

There are in all twenty-one slides along the Culebra 
Cut. Twelve cover areas varying from one to forty- 
seven acres, and nine cover areas of less than one acre 
each, making in all a total of one hundred and forty- 
nine acres. The largest is the Cucaracha slide, on the 
east side of the Canal, which covers an area of forty- 
seven acres, and which has broken back 1,820 feet from 
the center line of the Canal. This slide, according to 
French records, started as early as 1884, and has given 
the Americans considerable trouble since they began 
wOrk. Over two million cubic yards have been re- 
moved by the Americans, and the slide is still active. 
The next largest slide is a combination of two slides on 
the west side of the Cut at Culebra, just north of Con- 
tractor's Hill, covering about twenty-eight acres. 
Over two million cubic yards have been removed from 
this slide, and it is estimated that one million cubic 
yards are still in motion. On the east side of the Cut, 
north of Gold Hill, is another large slide covering an 
area of about seventeen acres which has broken back 
1,200 feet from the center line of the Canal. Over 
416,000 cubic yards have been taken out of this slide 
and about three-quarters of a million more are still in 
motion. The total distance across the Cut at this 
point from back to back of slides is 1,950 feet. In all, 
over nine million cubic yards have been taken out 
since July, 1905, because of slides, and over three 
million cubic yards are still in motion. 

Excavation. 

The total excavation, dry and wet, for the Canal, as 
originally planned, was estimated at 103,795,000 cubic 
yards, in addition to the excavation by the French 
companies. Changes in the plan of the Canal, made 
subsequently by order of the President, increased the 
amount to 174,666,594 cubic yards. Of this amount, 
89,794,493 cubic yards were to be taken from the Cen- 
tral Division, which includes the Culebra Cut. in 
July, 1910, a further increase of 7,871,172 cubic yards 
was made, of which 7,330,525 cubic yards were to allow 
for slides in Culebra Cut, for silting in the Chagres 
section, and for lowering the bottom of the Canal from 
40 to 39 feet above sea level in the Chagres section. 



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Excavation (Continued.) 

These additions increased the estimated total exca- 
vation to 182, 537, 7 66 cubic yards. Active excavation 
work on a large scale did not begin until 1907, when 
15,765,290 cubic yards were removed. In 1908, over 
37,000,000 cubic yards were removed, and in 1909, 
over 35,000,000, making a total for the two years of over 
72,000,000 cubic yards, or a monthly average for those 
two years of 3,000,000 cubic yards. In 1910, over 
31,000,000 cubic yards were removed, the monthly 
average exceeding 2,600,000 cubic yards. The total 
for these three years was nearly three-fifths of the 
entire excavation for the Canal. Records of all exca- 
vation to May 1, 1911, are appended: 

By French Companies 78,146,960 

French excavation useful to present Canal._ 29,908,000 

By Americans — 

Dry excavation 84,112,947 

Dredges 50,976,485 

: 135,089,432 

May 4 to December 31, 1904 243,472 

January 1 to December 31, 1905 1,799,227 

January 1 to December 31, 1906 4,948,497 

January 1 to December 31, 1907..... 15,765,290 

January 1 to December 31, 1908 37,116,735 

January 1 to December 31 : 1909 35,096,166 

January 1 to December 31, 1910 31,437,677 

January 1 to May 1, 1911- 11,343,456 

EXCAVATION BY DIVISIONS. 

May 4, 1904 to May 1, 1911. 



Divisions. 


Amount excavated. 


Remaining to be 
excavated. 


Atlantic — 
Dry excavation 

Dredges 

Central — 
Culebra Cut 
All other points 
Pacific — 
Dry excavation 
Dredges 


8,001,503 1 

23,547,215 | 31 ' 54S ' 718 

62,814,7491 C7 , mQ 
11,761.299) 74 ' 576 ' 048 

3,322,902 1 ..,--«., 
28,302,852) 31 ' 62;) ' 754 

137,750,520 


271,5511 cnc , 
11,537,076) U' 808 ' 627 

21,371,975> 4S 970 
1,176,995 S 22 ' 548 ' 9 ' 

3,057,240! 
7,372,409 ) 1U,4 ^ ,04y 






Grand totals 


44,787,246 



19 




1 20 

Capacity of Steam Shovels and Dirt Trains. 

There are several classes of steam shovels engaged 
in excavating work, equipped with dippers ranging in 
capacity from If cubic yards to 5 cubic yards, and a 
trenching shovel, which has a dipper with a capacity 
of f of a cubic yard. 

Each cubic yard, place measurement, of average 
rock weighs about 3,900 pounds; of earth, about 3,000 
pounds; of "the run of the cut," about 3,600 pounds, 
and is said to represent about a two-horse cart load. 
Consequently, a five cubic yard dipper, when full, 
carries 8.7 tons of rock, 6.7 tons of earth, and 8.03 tons 
of "the run of the cut." 

Three classes of cars are used in hauling spoil — flat 
cars with one high side, which are unloaded by plows 
operated by a cable upon a winding drum, and two 
kinds of dump cars, one large and one small. The 
capacity of the flat cars is 19 cubic yards; that of the 
large dump cars, 17 cubic yards, and that of the small 
dump cars, 10 cubic yards. The flat car train is or- 
dinarily composed of 20 cars in hauling from the cut 
at Pedro Miguel, and of 21 cars in hauling from the cut 
at Matachin. The large dump train is composed of 
27 cars, and the small dump train of 35 cars. 

The average load of a train of flat cars, in hauling 
the mixed material known as "the run of the cut," is 
610.7 tons (based on a 20-car train) ; of a train of large 
dump cars, 737.68 tons, and of a train of small dumps, 
562.5 tons. 

The average time consumed in unloading a train of 
flat cars is from 7 to 15 minutes; in unloading a train 
of large dump cars, 15 to 40 minutes; and in unloading 
a train of small dump cars, 6 to 56 minutes. The 
large dump cars are operated by compressed air power 
furnished by the air pump of the locomotive, while the 
small dump cars are operated by hand. 

The record day's work for one steam shovel was 
that of March 22, 1910, 4,823 cubic yards of rock 
(place measurement), or 8,395 tons. The highest 
daily record in the Central Division was on March 
11, 1911, when 51 steam shovels and 2 cranes equip- 
ped with orange peel buckets excavated an aggregate 
of 79,484 cubic yards, or 127,742 tons. During this 
day, 333 loaded trains and as many empty trains 
were run to and from the dumping grounds. 



2] 







22 
Breakwaters. 

Breakwaters are under construction at the Atlantic 
and Pacific entrances of the Canal. That in Limon 
Bay, or Colon harbor, extends into the bay from Toro 
Point at an angle of 42 degrees and 53 minutes 
northward from a base line drawn from Toro Point 
to Colon light, and will be 10,500 feet in length, or 
11,700 feet, including the shore connection, with a 
width at the top of fifteen feet and a height above mean 
sea level of ten feet. The width at the bottom will 
depend largely on the depth of water. It will contain 
approximately 2,840,000 cubic yards of rock, the core 
being formed of rock quarried on the mainland near 
Toro Point, armored with hard rock from Porto Bello. 
Work began on the breakwater in August, 1910, and 
on May 1, 1911, the fill had been extended 4,214 feet. 
The estimated cost is $5,500,000. A second break- 
water has been proposed for Limon Bay, but this part 
of the project has not been formally acted upon. The 
purpose of the breakwaters is to convert Limon Bay 
into a safe anchorage, to protect shipping in the har- 
bor of Colon, and vessels making the north entrance 
to the Canal, from the violent northers that are likely 
to prevail from October to January, and to reduce to 
a minimum the amount of silt that may be washed into 
the dredged channel. 

The breakwater at the Pacific entrance will extend 
from Balboa to Naos Island, a distance of about 17,000 
feet, or a little more than three miles. It will lie from 
900 to 2,700 feet east of and for the greater part of 
the distance nearly parallel to the axis of the Canal 
prism; will vary from 20 to 40 feet in height above 
mean sea level, and will be from 50 to 3,000 feet 
wide at the top. It is estimated that it will contain 
about 18,000,000 cubic yards of earth and rock, all 
of which will be brought from Culebra Cut. It is 
constructed for a two-fold purpose; first, to divert 
cross currents that would carry soft material from the 
shallow harbor of Panama into the Canal channel; 
second, to insure a more quiet harbor at Balboa. 
Work was begun on it in May , 1908. On May 1,1911, 
it had been constructed for a distance of 13,000 feet. 



23 




24 



Canal Force, Quarters and Supplies. 

The Canal force is recruited and housed by the 
Quartermaster's Department which has two general 
branches, labor and quarters, and material and sup- 
plies. Through the labor and quarters branch there 
have been brought to the Isthmus 43,432 laborers, of 
whom 11,797 came from Europe, 19,448 from Bar- 
bados, the balance from other islands in the West 
Indies and from Colombia. No recruiting is required 
at present, the supply of labor on the Isthmus being 
ample. 

On May 1, 1911, the total force of the Isthmian 
Canal Commission and Panama Railroad Company, 
actually at work, was divided as follows: 





Gold 

4,540 
467 

121 
219 


Silver 


Total 


Isthmian Canal Commission 


23,592 

3,639 

2,201 

800 


28,132 


Panama Railroad Company (proper) 
Panama Railroad Relocation 


4,106 
2,322 


Panama Railroad Commissary 


1,019 






Totals... _ 


5,347 


30,232 


35,579 



The gold force is made up of the officials, clerical 
force, construction men, and skilled artisans of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad 
Company. Practically all of them are Americans. 
The silver force represents the unskilled laborers of 
the Commission and the Panama Railroad Company. 
Of these, about 4,500 are Europeans, mainly Span- 
iards, with a few Italians and other races. The 
remainder, about 25,000, are West Indians, about 
3,700 of whom are employed as artisans receiving 16, 
20, and 25 cents, and a small number, 32 and 44 
cents, an hour. The standard rate of the West Indian 
laborer is 10 cents an hour, but a few of these doing 
work of an exceptional character are paid 16 and 20 
cents. The larger part of the Spaniards are paid 20 
cents an hour, and the rest 16 cents an hour. 

The material and supply branch carries in eight 
general storehouses a stock of supplies for the Com- 
mission and Panama Railroad valued approximately 
at $4,500,000. About $12,000,000 worth of supplies 
are purchased annually, requiring the discharge of one 
steamer each dav. 



Food, Clothing and Other Necessaries. 

The Canal and Panama Railroad forces are supplied 
with food, clothing and other necessaries through the 
Subsistence Department, which is divided into two 
branches — Commissary and Hotel. It does a business 
of about seven million five hundred thousand dollars 
per annum. The business done by the Commissary 
Department amounts to about $6,000,000 per 
annum, and that done by the hotel branch to about 
$1,500,000 per annum. 

The Commissary system consists of 22 general stores 
in as many Canal Zone villages and camps along the 
relocated line of the Panama Railroad. It is estimated 
that w r ith employes and their dependents, there are 
about 65,000 people supplied daily with food, cloth- 
ing, and other necessaries. In addition to the retail 
stores, the following plants are operated at Cristobal : 
cold storage, ice making, bakery, coffee roasting, ice 
cream, laundry and packing department. 

A supply train of 21 cars leaves Cristobal every 
morning at 4 a. m. It is composed of refrigerator 
cars containing ice, meats and other perishable arti- 
cles, and ten containing other supplies. These are 
delivered at the stations along the line and distributed 
to the houses of employes by the Quartermaster's 
Department. 

The hotel branch maintains the Hotel Tivoli at 
Ancon, and also 18 hotels along the line for white 
gold employes at which meals are served for thirty 
cents each. At these 18 hotels there are served 
monthly about 200,000 meals. There are sixteen 
messes for European laborers, who pay 40 cents per 
ration of three meals. There are served at these 
messes about 270,000 meals per month. There are 
also operated for the West Indian laborers fourteen 
kitchens, at which they are served a ration of three 
meals for 27 cents per ration. There are about 
100,000 meals served monthly at these kitchens. 
The supplies for one month for the line hotels, 
messes and kitchens cost about $85,000; labor and 
other expenses about $17,500. The monthly receipts, 
exclusive of the revenue from the Hotel Tivoli, 
amount to about $105,000. 



26 

Value of the $40,000,000 French Purchase. 

A careful official estimate has been made by the 
Canal Commission of the value to the Commission 
at the present time of the franchises, equipment, 
material, work done, and property of various kinds 
for which the United States paid the French Canal 
Company $40,000,000. It places the total value at 
$42,799,826, divided as follows: 

Excavation, useful to the Canal, 29,708,000 

cubic yards _ $25,389,240.00 

Panama Railroad Stock 9,644,320.00 

Plant and material, used and sold for scrap _. 2,112,063.00 

Buildings, used 2,054,203.00 

Surveys, plans, maps and records 2,000,000.00 

Land 1 .000,000.00 

Clearings, roads, etc... _ 100,000.00 

Ship channel in Panama Bay, four years' use._. 500,000.00 



Total _ _.. $42,79 9,826.00 

The Canal Zone. 

The Canal Zone contains about 448 square miles. 
It begins at a point three marine miles from mean low 
water mark in each ocean, and extends for five miles 
on each side of the center line of the route of the Canal. 
It includes the group of islands in the Bay of Panama 
named Perico, Naos, Culebra, and Flamenco. The 
cities of Panama and Colon are excluded from the 
Zone, but the United States has the right to enforce 
sanitary ordinances in those cities, and to maintain 
public order in them in case the Republic of Panama 
should not be able, in the judgment of the United 
States, to do so. 

Of the 448 square miles of Zone territory, the United 
States owns the larger portion, the exact amount of 
which is being determined by survey. Under the 
treaty with Panama, the United States has the right 
to acquire by purchase, or by the exercise of the right 
of eminent domain, any lands, buildings, water rights, 
or other properties necessary and convenient for the 
construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation, and 
protection of the Canal, and it can. therefore, at any 
time acquire the lands within the Zone boundaries 
which are owned by private persons. 



27 
Canal Appropriations and Expenditures. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

Payment to the New Panama Canal Company.... $40,000,000.00 

Payment to Republic of Panama 10,000,000.00 

Appropriation, June 28, 1902 10,000,000.00 

Appropriation, December 21, 1905 11,000,000.00 

Deficiency, February 27, 1906 ... .. 5,990,786.00 

Appropriation, June 30, 1906 25,456,415.08 

Appropriation, March 4, 1907 27,161,367.50 

Deficiency, February 15, 1908 12,178,900.00 

Appropriation, May 27, 1908 29,187,000.00 

Deficiency, March 4, 1909 5,458,000.00 

Appropriation, March 4, 1909 33,638,000.00 

Deficiency, February 25, 1910.... 76,000.00 

Appropriation, June 25, 1910 37,855,000.00 

Private Act. Relief of Elizabeth G. Martin 1,200.00 

Private Act. Relief of Marcellus Troxell 1,500.00 

Private Act. Relief of W. L. Miles 1,704.18 

Private Act. Relief of Chas. A. Caswell...... 1,056.00 

Appropriation, March 4, 1911 45,560,000.00 

Total. .$293,566.928.7 6 

CLASSIFIED EXPENDITURES TO APRIL 1, 1911 

Department of Construction and Engineering $108,841,789.99 

Department of Construction of Engin'ring— Plant 8,581,385.30 

Department of Sanitation 12,775,053.94 

Department of Civil Administration 4,714,030.52 

Panama Railroad, Second Main Track 1,125,766.28 

Panama Railroad, Relocated Line 6,331,631.48 

Purchase and Repair of Steamers _ 2,657,384.88 

Zone Water Works and Sewers 4,365,053.09 

Zone Roadways 1,512,869.34 

Loans to Panama Railroad 3,247,332.11 

Construction and Repair of Buildings 9,949,267.23 

Purchase from New Panama Canal Company 40,000,000.00 

Payment to Republic of Panama.. 10,000,000.00 

Miscellaneous 4,127,106.76 

Total....... $218,2 2 8,670.9 2 

The balances carried in expenditure accounts, which 
are included in the last item above, for water works, 
sewers and pavements in the cities of Panama and 
Colon amounted altogether to $2,146,695.52. The 
unexpended balancein the appropriation for sanitation 
in the cities of Panama and Colon, available for ex- 
penditures on water works, sewers and pavements was 
$334,965.56, including transfer of appropriations for 
quarter ended March 31. 



28 

Relocated Panama Railroad. 

The new, or relocated line of the Panama Railroad 
is 47.1 miles long, or slightly shorter than the old line. 
From Colon to Mindi, 4.17 miles, and from Corozal to 
Panama, 2.83 miles, the old location is used, but the re- 
maining 40 miles are new road. From Mindi to Gatun 
the railroad runs, in general, parallel to the Canal, and 
ascends from a few feet above tide water elevation to 
nearly 95 feet above. At Gatun the road leaves the 
vicinity of the Canal and runs eastalong the valley of the 
Gatun River to a point about 4^ miles from the center 
line of the Canal, where it turns southward again and 
skirts the east shore of Gatun Lake to the beginning of 
Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo. In this section there are 
several large fills, occurring where the line crosses the 
Gatun Valley and near the north end of Culebra Cut, 
where the line was located so as to furnish waste dumps 
for the dirt from the Canal. Originally it was in- 
tended to carry the railroad through Culebra Cut on 
a 40-foot berm, 10 feet above the water level, but the 
numerous slides have made this plan impracticable 
and a line is now being constructed around the Cut, 
known locally as the Gold Hill Line. Leaving the 
berm of the Canal at Bas Obispo, the Gold Hill Line 
gradually works into the foot hills, reaching a distance 
from the center line of the Canal of two miles opposite 
Culebra; thence it runs down the Pedro Miguel Val- 
ley to Paraiso, where it is only 800 feet from the center 
line of the Canal. This section of the line is located 
on maximum grade of 1.25 per cent, compensated, and 
has a total length of 9-f miles. The sharpest curve on 
the whole line is 7°. From the south end of Culebra 
Cut at Paraiso, the railroad runs practically parallel 
with the Canal to Panama, with maximum grade of 
0.45 per cent. Where the railroad crosses the Gatun 
River,- a bascule steel bridge is to be erected, and a 
steel girder bridge, J mile long, with 200-foot through 
truss channel span, is in use across the Chagres River 
at Gamboa. Small streams are crossed on reinforced 
concrete culverts. Near Miraflores, a tunnel 736 
feet long has been built through a hill. Total cost of 
new line is estimated at $9,000,000. 



29 

Equipment. 

CANAL SERVICE. 

Steam shovels: 

105-ton, 5 cubic yard dippers 14 

95-ton, 4 and 5 cubic yard dippers 32 

70-ton, 2\ and 3 cubic yard dippers 35 

66-ton, 2\ cubic yard dippers 7 

45-ton, If cubic yard dippers 10 

26-ton ..._ 1 

Trenching shovel, f cubic yard dipper,._ 1 

Total 100 

Locomotives: 
American: 

106 tons 99 

105 tons 39 

1 1 7 tons ._ 20 

15S 

French : 

20 tons 5 

26 tons 46 

27 tons 9 

30 tons 42 

Decauville 10 

112 

Narrow gage, American, 16 tons..._ 33 

Electric 12 45 



Total 315 

Drills: 

Mechanical churn, or well 265 

Tripod „ 295 

Total 560 

Cars: 

Flat, used with unloading plows 1802 

Steel dumps, large 600 

Steel dumps, small 1200 

Ballast dumps 25 

Wooden dumps 12 

Steel flats 500 

Narrow gage 200 

Motor 6 

Pay Car._ 1 

Total... 4,346 



30 



Spreaders 25 

Track shifters 10 

Unloaders 30 

Pile drivers 19 

Dredges: 

French ladder 7 

Dipper 3 

Pipe-line 7 

Sea going suction 2 

Clam shell 1 

Total 20 

Cranes 57 

Rock breaker 1 

Tugs._ 12 

Tow boat 1 

House boats 2 

Clapets j. 11 

Pile driver, floating... 1 

Crane boat 1 

Barges, lighters and scows 70 

Launches 14 

Cutters._ 3 

Drill boats _ 2 

PANAMA RAILROAD 

Locomotives: 

Road, (12 oil burners) 36 

Switch „ _ 34 

Total 70 

Cars: 

Coaches 57 

Freight 1477 

Total 1,534 

Locomotive crane 1 

Piledriver, track 1 

Pile driver, floating 1 

Tugs 2 

Lighters: 

Coal, all steel _ 5 

Cargo, steel and iron 8 

Total 13 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 08522 0597 



The Panama Railroad Steamship 
Line operates between New York and 
the Canal Zone— six modern steamers, 
equipped with electric lights, wireless 
telegraphy, and all modern improve- 
ments, and is the only line making the 
trip, New York to Isthmus of Panama, 
or vice-versa, in six days. 

The Washington Hotel, located on 
the beach, the only first class hotel in 
Colon, is operated by the Panama 
Railroad; cuisine unexcelled; service 
table de hote or a la carte; rooms sin- 
gle or en suite; terms moderate. 

The Panama Railroad operates, for 
the benefit of those desiring to see the 
Canal work, observation parlor chair 
cars. They are also prepared to sup- 
ply tourists with guides at a nominal 
rate per day. 

For rates and other information ap- 
ply to any agent of the Company, or to 



J. A. SMITH, 

General Superintendent, 

Colon, K. of P. 



I. C. C. Press 

Quartermaster's Department 

Mount Hope C. Z.